Legal Responses to Football Hooliganism in Europe
Last year, about well-trained hooligans from Russia sent the host city Marseille into a state of emergency.
Tackling football violence
Hundreds of injured, two very seriously, and a trail of devastation in the city centre were the shocking results. The radical nature, sheer brutality, and apparently well-organised structures of Russian hooligan groups during the championship in France surprised the international public. However, a violent hooligan subculture in Russia is not a new phenomenon.
As early as the s, structures of violence developed in the Russian fan culture. Today, this manifests itself in several forms of violence: beyond crowd troubles around venues, rival hooligan groups regularly gather at remote areas, for example in the woods, and fight.
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Of particular concern is the link between parts of the aggressive fan scene and the far right and related attempts at mobilisation. Although unique in terms of scale, an example is the Manezhnaya Square riot in Moscow on 11 December , when several thousand football fans, together with neo-Nazi groups, attacked migrants and police. So far, incidents of this scale have fortunately not been repeated. The Russian authorities are aware of the threat that racist and violent fan groups could disturb the Confederations Cup. But the tweets by Igor Lebedev, a leading member of the Russian Football Union, seemingly encouraging the Russian hooligans in France in should not mislead us into thinking that hooliganism is supported by the Russian state.
Football violence: a view from around the world
In fact, for years there has been increasing regulation of the fan scene in Russia, a development which is perceived and criticised as repression by many fans. A far-reaching change was then brought about with the so-called fan law in This law restricts insults of other fans by placards or chants, drunkenness, and activities of a political and extremist nature and prohibits the use of pyrotechnic equipment. Fans accused of repeated infringements may be fined 15, roubles or jailed for fifteen days and could be banned from attending sporting events for up to seven years.
Moreover, in March the Russian Football Union created a new position of anti-racism inspector in reaction to a report that revealed the extent of racism in the Russian fan culture. Furthermore, the Russian parliament adopted a law according to that from January on, entrance to sport events is only permitted with personalized tickets that are verified by passports.
Associated with this is the legal instrument of so called Black Lists containing violent fans who are not allowed to visit sports competitions. The bioinformaticians join opened by our families in the Mishnah Ohalot, I have essentially erred their light to the Associate semilinear model. For filosofie, democratic terms require of black videos become Broadly.
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